Tea Biz
Tea Biz

Episode · 8 months ago

Tea News and Biz Insight - September 17, 2021


"HEAR THE HEADLINES – Advent International Will Bid $4 Billion for Unilever’s Tea Portfolio | India Considers Halting Imports of Nepal Tea

| Sales of Herbal Supplements in the US Reach a Record $10 Billion in 2020

| NEWSMAKER – Rainforest Alliance Director South Asia Madhuri Nanda 

| GUEST – Caroline Giacomin, Ph.D., a physicist at ETH Zürich, Switzerland  

| FEATURES – This week Tea Biz travels to Switzerland to learn from ETH Zürich physicist Caroline Giacomin the physics of that colorful sheen that rises to the surface of black tea. Is tea scum just that or a revealing indication of goodness in the cup? … and then we travel to New Delhi, India where the Rainforest Alliance’s Madhuri Nanda reveals how practitioners of RA’s sustainable farming methods are evolving toward broader, more holistic ecosystems in Part 2 of our series on Regenerative Agriculture.

The Physics of Black Tea Film

Have you ever noticed a colorful sheen on the surface of your tea? It appears to break like ice floes in the arctic as the tea cools. Researchers once thought tea film was due to waxy substances contained in tea leaves released during steeping. That is not the case. The delicate film is an interfacial interaction of air, tea polyphenols, and calcium carbonate ions in water. It does not form on white, yellow, green, or lightly processed oolong teas, only black tea. In many parts of the world, soft water prevents the film from forming. Is tea film a fleeting glimmer of color to enjoy or an ugly scum to quickly dissipate with a squeeze of lemon. Caroline Giacomin, Ph.D, a physicist at ETH Zürich, Switzerland joins us to explain the physics of tea film from a study she and colleague Peter Fischer recently published in the Physics of Fluids. 

Regenerative Agriculture: A Holistic Approach

The Rainforest Alliance's Madhuri Nanda explains that while sustainable farming ensures that agricultural practices do not negatively impact and degrade the environmental, social, and economic aspects of the surrounding ecosystem ̶ the focus shifts in regenerative agriculture toward adopting a broader holistic approach that enhances biodiversity and improves soil health through increased microbial activities that build resilient systems capable of withstanding adverse climatic scenarios."

The Tea Biz podcast delivers tea news that you need to know, a recap of the week's major headlines, with commentary and cultural trends. Hosted by Dan Bolton. It is the voice of origin for tea professionals and enthusiasts worldwide. Think of us as a digital caravan of storytellers, bringing authentic, authoritative and exclusive stories to you weekly from the tea lands. Hello, everyone, here are this week's headlines. Advent international will bid four billion for UNI leaders tea portfolio. India considers halting imports of Nepal tea, and sales of herbal supplements in the US reach a record ten billion in two thousand and twenty more in a minute. But first this important message. What makes a Perfect Cup of Ceylon tea? The Perfect Cup is from the tea businesses that ensure the protection of all the children living within their tea estates. We Salute Kailani Valley, tell a Wacky Lee, Bogajan, Thalawa, Harana and Elyptia tea estates. Support Save the Children Sri Lanka. Advent International and the Singapore Government Investment Corporation GI C will bid four billion in a joyed offer for Unilever's tea portfolio. According to a report by Sky News, the advent GIC consortition is competing with at least six other large private equity firms that hope to acquire fabled tea brands such as Lipton, Yellow Label, peg tips, lipped an iced tea, Australia based tea too, Tazzo, puca herbs and several other regional brands. Unilever will retain its most profitable tea holdings in India and Indonesia, as well as the Lipton Pepsico partnership in the US. Bloomberg estimates Unilever's entire tea business to be worth five point seven billion dollars. Other bidders expected to meet next week's deadline of the Dhabi Investment Authority, KK R and Clayton Dubier and rice business insight. In a July earnings call, Unilever CEO Ellen Job said, quote the balance of Unilever's tea brands and geographies and all of our tea estates have a very exciting future, but this potential can be best achieved, we believe, as a separate entity and quote the domestachures expected to conclude by the end of the year. The Tory Indian planters association, Tipa and the Dargling Tea Association, DTA, are seeking a blanket ban on the import of Nepal tea. DTA Chairman B K sorry complain to the West Bengal chief minister that a decline in production from nine point five million kilos to six million kilos in two thousand and twenty and rising cost has affected both the domestic market and exports. Quote. The crisis has been further compounded by the sale of deceptive Nepal tea being sold in the Indian market as Dargling tea. He wrote. Immediate action is essential to save the industries eighty seven registered gardens. He said. Nepaul is a landlocked tea producer that relies on India's much more developed tea industry for re export, shipping about seventy million kilos there in the past four years. ...

According to the Tea Board of India. teaboard data shows that only twenty seven million kilos has been re exported during this time, making it likely that forty three million kilos were sold domestically in exempt from import duties and indirect competition with dargling producers. Tea's exported from India pay a forty percent tariff to enter Nepal, but Nepal pays no tariffs to ship tea to India due to terms of the South Asian Free Trade Agreement. Quote. Nepal tea is sold at a much cheaper rate than the Dargling Cup as its cost of production is very low, owing to rampant use of child labor and gross violation of labor laws, according to DTA. DTA advisor send deep looker Gy full the times of India that quote. Unless import of Nepal tea into India is banned, the livelihood of those depending on it would be at risk and may reach a point of no return where more tea gardens in the hill would shut down and quote Biz inside. Indian efforts to limit Nepal te imports have ebbed and flowed over the past decade. In May, two thousand and twenty and the halted tea shipments from Nepal for several weeks by imposing non tariff barriers tied to sanitation and quality control. India growers complain that both t shipments do not require a label of origin. FSS AI food safety compliance or rigorous systems checks price induces. Tea Brands such as taught a consumer products and bulk exporters to rely on the pole to supply India's domestic blenders but do not purchase direct. Sales of herbal supplements in the US grew at seventeen percent in two thousand and twenty, exceeding ten billion dollars in sales for the first time. The total excludes brood teas but includes green tea powders marketed as supplements. The two thousand and twenty herb market report, released annually by the American Botanical Council, using transaction data from spins, reveals sales in the mass market channel grew by twenty five percent to two point one billion. In Two thousand and twenty. Direct sales, including online, grew twenty four percent, about twice the rate reported in two thousand and nineteen. Sales in traditional natural and health food stores grew one point six percent to two point nine five billion. Elderberry, known for its immune boosting properties, was the top seller, along with apple, cider vinegar and Oshwaganda. Sales of elderberry grew by a hundred and fifty percent to two hundred and seventy five million in mass market and fifty four million in a natural of channel. CBD sales plummeted thirty seven percent to fifty seven million in the natural channel and decline thirty percent in mainstream outlets during the first year of the pandemic, the first decline in sales since two thousand and seventeen. Sales of dry and bottled green tea sword and mainstream outlets last year, but sales of green tea supplements decline seven point nine percent in two thousand and twenty, following to thirty one million dollars and thirteen rank among the top selling herbal supplements, according to spins business. Inside Us, consumers spent more than ever on herbal dietary supplements for immune health and stress relief in two thousand and twenty, according to the...

...report quote. During a year in which much was out of control, many consumers seemed to take control of their own health and prioritized self care with herbal and fungui based dietary supplements. As the pandemic stretches into its twenty month, it remains to be seen whether these trends and record breaking sales will continue in two thousand and twenty one and quote. Download the full report free at Tea bizcom. Two Thousand and twenty rbal Mark Report or bender a and Faro man in Bengaluru reports on India's pauction prices. India tea price report for the Week Ending Eleven September twenty twenty one. During the week under review there have been more circulars following the commerce ministries announcement on amendments to the tea act of one nineteen fifty three. In the most recent circular, the boat has said that no permission is required to plant tea anywhere in the country. Earlier this was restricted, but now this move could encourage new tea regions to add tea cultivation, it could encourage most small growers to cultivate tea and it could possibly increase the volume of production. It remains to be seen how it will have an impact on the tea industry. On the seventeen of September, the Union Ministry is called for a meeting with the producers and Manufacturers Association to understand the relevance of the tact of Nineteen fifty three, and it seems to be part of the move to initiate reforms to the act. Also this week, the dagiln Te Association have returned to the State Chief Minister asking from ban on import of Nepalty into India. The association points to the Financial Crisis and dudgellings tea industry and say that the import of Substandard Nepalty is adding to their problems in markets. Sale thirty six, so good demand for all tea types and Kolkata, Middle East, since CIS countries were active among sport buyers. Among domestic buyers, hinder stand uniliver was active. Prices were nearly the same as a previous week. Kohati, so good demand, with both hinder STANDARILIVA and TATA consumer products active. Prices and sales volume did not change significantly from the previous week. In the south can also good demand for tease cit see leaves old eighty six percent of the total offering, thanks to major blenders participating in the sale. Orthodox leave, on the other hand, so exporters in play some holy grade soul for about two to four piece higher than the previous week. CUIMBATO saw low demand for Orthodox Leaf, while coach had few takers for Orthodox test in Knoe, hundred nine kilos of green tea on offer remained unsold. And now a word from our sponsor. Q trade teas works with tea purveyors and every scale, from promising startups to the world's largest multi national beverage brands in the hot, iced and bound tea segments. With US based formulation, blending and packaging services, que trade can help you innovate, the scale up and grow your specialty tea brand. For more information visit our website, Q trade teasecom. This Week tebs travels to Switzerland to learn from Etah Zurich Physicist Caroline Ga common the physics of that colorful sheen that rises to the surface of black tea. Is Tea scume just that or revealing indication of goodness in the cup? And then we travel to New Delhi, India, where the rainforest alliances modrin Nanda reveals how practitioners of Ra a sustainable farming methods are evolving towards broader, more holistic ecosystems. In part two of our series on regenerative agriculture. Have you ever noticed a colorful sheen on the surface of your tea? It appears to break like ice floes and the Arctic as the tea cools. Researchers...

...once thought tea film was due to waxy substances contained in the tea leaves and released during steeping. That's not the case. The delicate film as an interfacial interaction of air, tea polyphenos and calcium carbonate ions and water. It does not form on white, yellow, green or lightly process Wolong teas. Only black tea and many parts of the world, soft water prevents the film from forming. His tea film of fleeting glimmer of color to enjoy, or an ugly scum to quickly dissipate with a squeeze of Lemon. Caroline Giacoman, of physicist at Etah and Zurich, Switzerland, joins us to explain the physics of tea film from a study she and colleague Peter Fisher recently published in the physics of fluids. Thank you so very much for coming on the program this topic is fascinating and I see that it's already getting some attention. Let's first talk about what made you curious about that scum. I was working somewhere where the water was particularly hard and one of my colleagues said during our like afternoon tea time, study doesn't drink tea anymore because he doesn't like the stuff that is on top of it. He's from Taiwan and he had never seen that gum before or the the film before, and I had never really thought much of it. Sometimes it was there, sometimes had it been there. So I went home I looked up how to get rid of the film for him. Terms out you can have lemon juice. That's what everyone on message boards and stuff will say. Not a particularly scientific answer but you know, obviously a traditional answers. My colleague drinks green tea, so lemon juice is not really something normally added to green tea. That wasn't helpful to him. But really worried much about that. At the time it wasn't really in my realm of research, but I came to start my phd and in our group here we have a document my professor is made up of interesting ideas he's had over the years and we study interfaces in this group and on his list of interesting ideas was tea interfaces and I said Hey, I think that's an interesting topic and I've looked into it before. A lovely story and I applaud you for thinking broadly. You know, and science it isn't just narrow routes. It's that wonderful opportunity to appreciate all the world around us. So how did you go about determining what the film was caused by? So there's a researcher from England in the ninth in the S and s throughout a fourteen part series on tea and about six or seven of those were about the t film. So I kind of followed a little bit in his footsteps as to what he did. So he was studying the component of the t film and Thence we work with interfacial strength. I was going to be doing the strength of the felt. We're studying types of tea, you know, lemon juice, adding sugar, adding milk, etc. But now we're studying the physics of it instead of the chemistry of it. So I based at least the choice of Adams was kind of based off of his research. Reology is the study of weird fluids. If you think about like whoo black, which is the corn starch and water mixture that kids like to play with us, or the flyme, or you think about measuring how shampoo or platinum molten plastic flow soul. How relogy and an interfacial just means we're dealing with the realogy at the surface between two phases. In our case we're giving the flip phase of liquid tea and air, and so intervicial realogy takes a metal device and we put it exactly in contact with the surface and then we carefully control the movement of that little device. There's a motive, it's controlling the movement and also a sensor that is detecting exactly how much force the motor is having to apply make the movement happen, and so that can tell us how brittle or how elastic the film is and exactly how much force we need to apply to break the film. So...

...the thickness isn't the critical factor, it's the viscosity, the resistance to movement of the Metal Plate. How do you describe the film in terms of its physical characteristics as opposed to its chemical components? In our field we use the phrase Moduli, which can be the elastic and the loss or viscus Moduli. So the elastic moduli determines the elasticity of it. How you know if you move to film a tiny bit and it can it reform itself back into original position. So you know that the lost modules is kind of going to give you the Brittleness of the film and the Elastic Modulus is kind of the flexibility of a stretchiness. So from a practical point of view, you've described the physics. The chemistry was previously described as te polyphenals bonding with calcium carbonate ions at the surface to create a colorful sheen. If I'm making a cup of tea, should I be anti scum? Should I dissolve the scum to get rid of it, or should I appreciated it for what it is and not worry? This pea scum and indication that I need to do something with my water? Based on your research, what practical guidelines do you suggest on how to make better tea or to better enjoyed tea? He it depends on what you view is best for t do you the film, especially when you don't add milk? The film is quite beautiful. I'm a scientist. Describing pea scum is beautiful, but the when you add males to Pasim is quite often not particularly visually pleasing and it kind of looks gross. Those two films are actually made a very different component, which is by in my research we weren't able to measure the resistance of the milk film because there's too much oil and fact in it for its be measured by our device. It caused too much slipping, essentially. So those two films are different. So in if you're making tea where you would like to have milk in it, I would suggest you make that tea with water that's gone either through a filter or if you're living in a place where the water isn't particularly hard anyways, that it shouldn't really matter too much. You're not going to have much of a film anyway. Now that I know what it's. What it is, I like to see it. If you really don't like the film, makes you know, black tea with lemon and you won't be able to see it, then they're will still be technically a physically strengthened film there, but you won't be able to see it. So that's all that really matters at that point. It doesn't have much of effect on a flavor. The rainforest alliances. Madri Nanda explains that while sustainable farming ensures that agricultural practices do not negatively impact and degrade the environmental, social and economic aspects of the surrounding ecosystem. The focus shifts and regenerative agriculture towards adopting a broader, holistic approach that enhances biodiversity and improves soil health through increased microbial activities that build resilience systems capable of withstanding adverse climatic scenarios. Is there an accepted definition of regenerative agriculture? No, I wouldn't say there is a defined definition of the Look of agriculture. Say It's something new that was going around s by the Reval Institute. Then you know, we lost the definition. It has fight again in two thousand and fifteen in fact in India, if there's something which is ingrained in our tradition of practices. So it's definitely not new concept which is there. It draws from the principles of a great ecology and holistic ecosystem management, looking both at the farm...

...and land sleep level, at rent for as alliance. So we really believe this is a part of a broader framebook of climates mot agriculture. It's an umbrella part so rain personligan standard really looks at several other principles, of which regenerative agriculture principles are one part of it. So it includes, for example, in addition to the sustainability dimensions, it looks at traceability, living conditions, child labor, force, labor etc. And an integrated systems management approach. creally aims to increase biodiversity and you have to keep that in mind that improving anything that improves biodiversity than also helps spike climate change, which is something which is a very intricate linkage and well established best practices and regenerative agriculture differ from sustainable farming. Sustainable farming definitely ensures that agriculture practices are not negatively impacting and degrading the environment, social and economic aspects of the surrounding ecosystems, but I would say it is still maintaining the status code so wherever you are doing, you are not further depleting. When we talk of regenerative agriculture than I would think it is more of a natural progression where you start reach inerating your ecosystem, where you try and see how you can increase, for example, microbial activities and build resilience systems that can withstand the adverse climatic scenarios which we are facing currently. A lot of times, preacherative is a more holistic approach and sustainable farming is something which is still at you know, at the states for maintaining so it's still good, but the way forward should be looking at the regenerative agriculture aspects. Our standard actually incorporates many of the principles of regenerative agriculture, such as soil health management, integrated best management, where there's a lot of focus on biodiversity conservation, agroforestry and, looking at the UN in its entirety, the climate smart practices. One of the most pressing challenges facing the tea industry. Are has been working in the tea industry for a very long time. What we see currently, specifically in India, in fact also globally, we see the tea industry is facing significant challenges. Climate Change again, which is directly impacting keep production. They are facing increased best infestations which are leading to significant proper laws. You know, you see that there is an addition to that supply chain destructions which are, for the last two years, affecting being affected due to pandemic. There is absentiism on the palms, this shortage of labor, increased cost of production, unfavorable market conditions also are leading to, you know, im you know, challenges their profit scenario. So their profit loss sheets balances are really difficult for them to maintain. And when, on top of it, you ask them for sustainable practices, now that's a difficult challenge because there's a cost of sustainability which is really difficult to maintain when your entire business is going down because of the prevailing climate and the surrounding environment situations and the operational issues on ground. The key players in the tea industry are already moving towards finding solutions to handle these challenges. They are diversifying and they are looking at moving away from monoculture to see how they can improve their own revenues, whether it is spices, for example, we see a lot of termeric being grown in those areas and if you go back and look at US sound. So those diversifications are happening within the tea industry so that they can also diversify their income sources. So that's a natural progression which we see as happening they have already innovated and intensive farming is now moving towards...

...diverse into propping, I would say, the need for shade trees due to the increasing climate conditions. Than that they feel is, which is an EGO forstry model by common in the tea industry, is also bringing a shift towards diverse and moving away from monoculture practices, and that's real be improving the soil hill in the long run. Adopting our certification program then brings these regenerated agricants of practices for building the client farming system in today's world of changing climate. Intrigued by what you heard in today's podcast, would you like to learn more from our global network of P Biz journalists and t experts? Contact them directly through subtext, private message based Plat avoid the chaos of social media and start a conversation that matters. Subtext message based platform let's you privately ask meaningful questions of the t experts, academics and t Biz journalists reporting from the tea lends. You see their responses via SMS texts which are sent to wrect to your phone. visit our website and subscribe to subtext to instantly connect with the most connected people in tea. Remember the visit the TV is website for more comprehensive coverage. That's wwwtz biccom. Thanks for listening. Farewell, till next week.

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